The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia existed from 1561 as part of the Grand Duchy of Livonia, and later became a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in … When Gotthard Kettler died in 1587, his sons, Friedrichand Wilhelm, became the dukes of Courland. The promise of gain induced him to authorize wealthy Jews to settle there. The duchy's title goes to the Russian emperor. From the time of the Northern Crusades in the early 13th century, most land was owned by nobles descended from the German invaders. Agriculture was the chief occupation, with the principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, flax, and potatoes. (at1) Although nominally a vassal state, the dukes operated autonomously*wI. The United Baltic Duchy was nominally recognized as a sovereign state[citation needed] by the Kaiser only on September 22, 1918, half a year after Soviet Russia had formally relinquished all authority over its former Imperial Baltic provinces to the German Empire in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The territory is merged with that of the Russian Kurzeme and Zemgale regions of Livonia. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. It lies between 55° 45′ and 57° 45′ North and 21° and 27° East. A front was established along a line stretched between Riga, Daugavpils and Baranovitch. Latvia eventually signed a cease-fire with Germany on 15 July 1920, and the Treaty of Riga of 11 August ended the war. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. 64,500 in 1897); Bauska (6,543); Jaunjelgava (Friedrichstadt) (5,223); Kuldīga (Goldingen) (9,733); Grobiņa (1,489); Aizpute (Hasenpoth) (3,338); Ilūkste (Illuxt) (2,340); Talsi (Talsen) (6,215); Tukums (Tuckum) (7542); and Ventspils (Windau) (7,132). In 1863, the Russian authorities issued laws to enable Latvians, who formed the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. Period of success and prosperity in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia did not last long, just about a decade. Courland (/ˈkʊərlənd/; Latvian: Kurzeme; Livonian: Kurāmō; German and Scandinavian languages: Kurland; Latin: Curonia/Couronia; Russian: Курляндия; Lithuanian: Kuršas; Polish: Kurlandia) is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. The part of Latvia between the west bank of the Daugava River and the Baltic Sea became the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, nominally a vassal state of the King of Poland. The promise of gain induced him to authorize wealthy Jews to settle there. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. [2], After the Russian Revolution, German troops started advancing from Courland, and by the end of February 1918 the territories of the former Russian Governorate of Livonia and Autonomous Governorate of Estonia that had declared independence were also occupied and fell under the German military administration. Wilhelm II's unwillingness to become the Duke of Courland, coupled with the Reichstag's critique of initiatives to annex the occupied territories, could have dispirited the Baltic … Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. Bm05169am.jpg 388 × 480; 74 KB. On 5 August 1940, the Soviet Union annexed the region along with the rest of Latvia which was made a constituent republic of the USSR, the Latvian SSR. Gotthard von Kettler (1517- 1587), the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1562. Former Bishopric of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent Duchy that existed from until... Expansion and economics the large estates conducted agriculture with skill and scientific knowledge alternate:... The Russian authorities of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously Wenden and Inflanty... 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