His first short story, “Hombre de la esquina” (Streetcorner Man), appeared in 1933. This certainly is what city-dweller and intellectual Juan Dahlmann of “The South,” who embraces rural traditions that are only partly his own, sees in the poem. 297-302. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978. Much of his literature is committed to contriving circumstances … GENRE: Fiction, nonfiction The nineteenth-century dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas was his great-great-great-uncle (Alazraki, pp. Subsequent outbreaks of brutality in Argentina are seen as a return to this original violence. THEMES CHARACTERS El mundo de Borges está lleno de misterios, presentimientos, verdades ocultos, dioses raros, tierras de ensueño y personas en el espacio entre la vida y la muerte. If the United States possesses an off…, Horacio Quiroga World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. SOUTH, THE This reference lends credence to one interpretation of the story, which posits that Juan Dahlmann, hero of “The South” does not in fact die in a knife fight on the pampas at sundown, but “imprisoned in a sanatorium and subjected to methodical attentions” he dreams a heroic death for himself as, in truth, he dies under the surgeon’s knife in the hospital (“The South” pp. Encyclopedia.com. They have also lived in Mansfield, MA and Boulder, CO. Kathleen is related to Guy F Borges and Kathleen A Borges as well as 1 additional person. Xiangyun Liao. Select this result to view Mary M Byers's phone number, address, and more. The shopkeeper (calling him by name) tells Dahlmann to pay them no heed, saying they are drunk. Giancarlo Bruni. The alarmed shopkeeper reminds Dahlmann that he does not even have a weapon. Dahlmann's perception of himself as two people, one travelling across the country, the other trapped in a sanitarium. New York: Modern Library, 1983. It achieves a dreamlike, romanticized treatment of elements embedded in the Argentine sense of national heritage, namely of the violence and cruelty attached to the traditional rural lifestyle. Other similar elements between Borges’s life and that of the protagonist are the ethnic heritage of their parents, their occupation as librarians, and the setting for the short story. Argentina, 1516-1982: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. Having to wait for his departure, he decides to have a bite at a famous cafe near the station where a cat lends itself to the patrons' caresses. "“The South” Lauded for his brilliance as a writer of modern fiction, Ralph Ellison has produced wor…, SANDRA CISNEROS A Guest of Honour (1970) "“The South” The resentment about the clout that Britain enjoyed in Argentina played into a new manifestation of nationalism that emerged mid-decade to join the more radical right-wing strain represented by Uriburu. The second best result is Kathleen L Borges age 60s in Somerset, MA. Mary is related to Lisa M Borges and Paul K Byers. (It's unclear which Dahlmann is the actual--the journey to the South may be an hallucination--but the journey is real, regardless.) DIED: 1916, Beaumont-Hamel, France In 1939, one of his grandchlidren, Juan Dahlmann, was secretary of a municipal library on Calle Cordoba, and he … “The South.” In Collected Fictions. The New South Other articles where The South is discussed: Argentina: …describes them in his story The South, the Pampas stretch endlessly to the horizon, dwarfing the humans within them; traveling from the capital toward Patagonia, the story’s protagonist, Señor Dahlmann, “saw horsemen along dirt roads; he saw gullies and lagoons and ranches; he saw long luminous clouds that resembled marble;… Eventually the librarian is taken to a sanatorium by his physician, and undergoes a myriad of painful and humiliating treatments to cure the septicemia (blood poisoning) that has nearly killed him. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. In “The South” Juan Dahlmann boards a 7:30 a.m. train in downtown Buenos Aires and travels south, through the city’s suburbs, around small farms, and into the nation’s preeminent ranching district, disembarking at sunset. Their itinerant lifestyle became criminal. Dahlmann boards the train and rides out of the city into the plains of the South. "The South" (original Spanish title: "El Sur") is a short story by Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges, first published in La Nación in 1953 and later in the second edition (1956) of Ficciones, part two (Artifices). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1989. Eds. Justo responded quickly to this threat. In fact, Justo did support nationalist, militaristic organizations. Borges uses the same theme in his story "The South". Retrieved January 13, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/south. As part of this romantic idea about the Argentine past and his own place in the progression of history, Dahlmann has retained his maternal family’s ranch, although he has not been there in years. He makes his way through the darkened roads to the only watering hole (a typical almacén de campo) outside of which he notices Gaucho's horses. However, while the intelligentsia continued to voice concern over Peronist tyranny, it was able to offer but little in the way of viable resistance. One thousand years after the melting a forebulge migrating towards the ice loads causes water to flow from the South Pacific into the North Pacific suggesting that raised beaches should occur in the South Pacific. Rodriguez Monegal, Emir. To enter the worlds in Ficciones is to enter the mind of Jorge Luis Borges, wherein lies Heaven, Hell, and everything in between. He takes The Arabian Nights with him on the train as a talisman to remind him that the forces of evil have been thwarted by his recovery in the sanatorium, but he soon puts it down to enjoy the sights of the countryside through which he is passing, and to “allow himself simply to live” (“The South,” p. 176). The Antebellum South Because his father was half British, the Borges home was bilingual, and the author grew up reading Shakespeare as well In 1934 the U.S. oil company Standard Oil became embroiled in a price war with Argentina’s national oil company, Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF); Justo’s government had to bail out YPF, which had difficulty competing with Standard Oil, and protest erupted over this perceived instance of U.S. imperialism. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. STYLE His many references to the knife-play and philosophy of the gaucho serve to emphasize this point. Borges points out that Argentine nationalists often hold up Ricardo Güiraldes’s renowned 1926 novel Don Segundo Sombra as a model of the gauchesque tradition, and yet this work draws heavily on the references to India in Rudyard Kipling’s Kim, which was, in turn, influenced by Mark Twain’s Mississippi River novel Huckleberry Finn. SOURCES Events in History at the Time the Short Story Takes Place, Events in History at the Time the Short Story Was Written. In an article for the London Review of Books, John Sturrock concurred, writing that “The South” is among Borges’s “finest stories” and praising it for its “heroic ingenuity” (Sturrock in Hall, p. 362). 1991 The Sky-The sky darkening could be his slow loss of reality and fading away. New York: Longman, 1984. He sensed that had he been able to choose or dream his death that night, this is the death he would have dreamed or chosen. The man who landed in Buenos Aires in 1871 bore the name of Johannes Dahlmann and he was a minister in the Evangelical Church. NATIONALITY: South African He touches also on the gauchos and their environment in other short stories, such as “Tlon, Ugbar, Orbis Tertius,” “The Shape of the Sword,” and “The Dead Man.”. Trans. Riding a taxi at dawn to the train station, Dahlmann regards the awakening city sights with great joy, enjoying them as if for the first time. Coming from an immigrant, middle-class background himself, he identified himself with the nation’s workers and widely publicized his pro-labor stance. He remembers everything when he is first injected with the needle in When this faculty returned to him over the course of his recovery, he was worried that his mind had been weakened, so he persuaded his mother to read to him to test whether or not he could understand her. GENRE: Fiction Coetzee, J. M. “Borges’s Dark Mirror.” The New York Review of Books, October 22, 1998, 80-82. The South By Jorge Luis Borges. On the deserted station, Dahlmann steps off into nearly empty fields. This entry includes 2 subentries: Jorge Luis Borges. Jorge Luis Borges's Ficciones explained with part summaries in just a few minutes! Borges the bookman is drawn to the literature of the world, which he enjoys citing with mock-pedantry; but Borges the man is drawn to what he has called “the implacable pampas” of Argentina… . "The South" (original Spanish title: "El Sur") is a short story by Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges, first published in La Nación in 1953 and later in the second edition (1956) of Ficciones, part two (Artifices). In the Roca-Runciman agreement of 1933 (and again in the Eden-Malbrán treaty of 1936), the two nations arrived at a settlement whereby Argentina would continue to export beef to Britain at the same levels as always, and Britain would gain important concessions for British businesses (notably the railroads) operating in Argentina (Rock, pp. On the eve of World War II, when the short story is set, the Argentine south was experiencing rapid change. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. (January 13, 2021). "The South." At the national level, in a trend begun in the late 1930s, for the first time industrial production started to surpass agriculture; industry finally became the most valuable component of the Argentine economy in 1943 (Rock, p. 232). Vol. By 1953 (the year “The South” was published) many of Borges’s literary friends and relatives had been in jail (his own aged mother and his sister had been arrested briefly for singing the national anthem and passing out anti-Perón pamphlets); apart from his removal from his position at the Miguel Cane municipal library, however, the authorities did not interfere with Borges himself in any way. “I have tried,” he wrote, “to present a type who personifies the character of our gauchos … the impetuousness of his pride, excessive to the point of crime; and all the drive and tumult found in children of nature who remain unpolished and unrefined by education” (Hernández in Shumway, p. 265). The decade was characterized by, among other things, burgeoning and competing philosophies of Argentine nationalism and the political expressions thereof. He instigated a new “contempt law” to prevent what he called “libel, slander, or defamation against public authorities” (Rock, p. 303). He achieved international acclaim in 1951 upon the publication of two short story collections (the first in Buenos Aires under the title Death and the Compass; the second in Paris under the title Ficciones). His great-grandfather, Colonel Isidoro Suárez, fought Spanish forces at the head of a Peruvian cavalry unit in 1820 at Junin and was exiled to Uruguay at the time of the Rosas dictatorship. CRITICISM As the story ends, Dahlmann goes outside with the man, prepared to die: They went outside, and while there was no hope in Dahlmann, there was no fear, either. In Borges’s short story “The South,” violence overtakes an average citizen at the hands of uncouth rural thugs. “The South” is vague as to just how much land Dahlmann owns, but the story refers to his “ranch.” Given the fact that there were large ranches on the pampas that sometimes covered hundreds of square miles, Dahlmann’s may have been sizable. When he. (More broadly, criollo is a term for a person of Spanish descent born in the Americas). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). 13 Jan. 2021 . Three peones (farm hands) sitting at a table nearby throw a bread crumb at him, which he ignores, prompting them to recommence their bullying. His fictions tended to feature characters in search of themselves rather than characters trying to come to grips with their social mileau. When the pampas were fenced in 1845 and individual ranches became clearly demarcated, the free-wheeling life of the gauchos drew to a close. . *** The world of Borges is full of mysteries, premonitions, hidden truths, strange gods, dreamlike lands, and people in the space between life and death. Rendered semi-delirious and confined in an anonymous room, he feels humiliation and self-hatred, as though he were in hell. “The South” by Jorge Luis Borges At first impression, “The South” misses many of the signature Borgesian qualities of stories like “ Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote ” and “ The Library of Babel.” There are no magical numbers, no flights of philosophical fancy, no fake footnotes, and no intrusive first-person narrator. After days of painful treatment in the hospital, he is suddenly told that he is completely recovered, having survived sepsis. 44. As demonstrated by ‘The South/’ Borges himself found Argentine issues and settings compelling subjects, but he refused to limit his stories to this locally tinged content Rather his strength lies in bringing to light the universality in what was Argentine and in relating Argentina to subjects and settings outside its own particular sphere. Critics the world over have praised Borges as one of the masters of modern literature, pointing out the dense allusions and overt references in his fiction to the works of other international writers. In Borges’s short story “The South,” violence overtakes an average citizen at the hands of uncouth rural thugs. It is as out of kilter with the rest of the story as a sprinkling of other details: the clothing on the old gaucho, which is typical of the nineteenth, not the twentieth, century and the facts that the shopkeeper calls the unidentified stranger, Señor Dahlmann, by name, and that this shopkeeper reminds Dahlman of the personnel at the sanatorium. The gravitational attraction of an ice mass upon a nearby ocean tends to hold sea level high in the vicinity of the ice. The gaucho that Juan Dahlmann in 1939 calls “outside time” was by then a figure of the mythic past (Borges, “The South,” p. 178). INTRODUCTION Thus he began to write short fiction, having already written poetry and essays. Writing for the New York Review of Books, J. M. Coetzee called the story “haunting” and saw it, along with the many other works by Borges about confronting death, as “reveal [ing] the attractions of a life of action for their bookish and rather timid author” (Coetzee, p. 82). At issue was whether writers ought to address the circumstances of their place and time in history, as literary critics of the time suggested and as readers began to demand. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on August 24, 1899, to middle-class parents of Spanish and English descent, Jorge Luis Borges would become the undisputed giant of Latin American letters. instinctively picks it up, Dahlmann realizes that this action has more or less committed him to fighting the other man. He refused the dubious honor and in a public statement denounced the “subservience … cruelty… [and] stupidity” of the Perón dictatorship (Rodríguez Monegal, p. 393). An Examination of the Work of Herbert Quain, Adrogue, con ilustraciones de Norah Borges, Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_South_(short_story)&oldid=997634770, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The events of the story are semi-autobiographical: Borges also worked in a library. Dahlmann stands up in order to exit the establishment. The Invention of Argentina. In the eyes of many he became a savior, a leader who “stood up for the common people, who put the anti-Argentinian oligarchy in its place, who defended national sovereignty against foreign capitalism, who made workers feel good about themselves, who safeguarded the country’s Catholic traditions, and protected the family” (Shumway, p. 298). Literature, poetry, the criminal underworld and the nature of the Infinite were all fair game for his writing. SOUTH, THE Alazraki, Jaime. Borges sends us on a journey into a compelling, bizarre, and profoundly resonant realm; we enter the fearful sphere of Pascal's abyss, the surreal and literal labyrinth of books, and the iconography of eternal return. Borges, Jorge Luis. Perón’s successful political strategy was to unite the interests of Argentine labor—both workers and managers—and the military and set them against the nation’s cultural elite, big business, and the intelligentsia. “As if we Argentines could only speak of orillas[outbacks] and estancias[ranches] and not of the universe” (Borges, Labyrinths, p. 182). The South, for Borges, is both a locale where his ancestors battled for dominance and the Southside of Buenos Aires where he spent his child- hood. From this heroic grandfather Dahlmann has developed a notion of his “Argentinization,” the prime elements of which include “an old sword, a locket containing the daguerreotype of a bearded, inexpressive man, the joy and courage of certain melodies, the habit of certain verses in Martín Fierro, the passing years, a certain lack of spiritedness, and solitude” (“The South,” p. 174). He sits down, orders food, and begins to read Arabian Nights. In 1990, Carlos Saura wrote and directed a 55-minute television movie based on El Sur entitled Los Cuentos De Borges: El Sur (English: The Borges Tales: The South). He heads out to the countryside in the hope of convalescence, but is unwillingly embroiled in a … Dahlmann was warmed by the Tightness of the man’s hairband, the baize poncho he wore, his gaucho trousers, and the boots made out of the skin of a horse’s leg, and he said to himself, recalling futile arguments with people from districts in the North, or from Entre Rios, that only in the South did gauchos like that exist anymore. Hall, Sharon K., ed. Donald A. Yates and James E. Irby. The gaucho developed a reputation for cunning and violence; he typically carried a long (up to 27 inches) dagger, or facón. It is possible Dahlmann never left the hospital and is only imagining this romantic gaucho-style duel in the South. Shy and bookish, a librarian by profession, Borges reflected throughout his career on the lives of his heroic Argentine relatives and on the myths and realities of the nation’s (often violent) character. ." Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Detroit:Gale Research, 1988. Fascism had steadily been gaining political ground in Italy and Germany, and it took root in Argentina as well. “The South” opens with an episode similar to one that occurred in Borges’s own life and that he claimed opened the door to his serious writing of fiction. For Borges, the genre, which he admits has produced admirable works, is too self-consciously preoccupied with ‘’being Argentine” “Nationalists pretend to venerate the capacities of the Argentine mind but want to limit the poetic exercise of that mind to a few impoverished local themes” writes Borges. . _____. 48. In “The South”, Borges’s reference to the Arabic text is rather obvious in which the protagonist tries to use a magical text, The Thousand and One Nights to change his reality and rewrite his existence. AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY In “The South” Juan Dahlmann takes a cup of coffee “a few yards from Yrigoyen’s house”; the brief reference here is undoubtedly to one-time Argentine President Hipólito Yrigoyen, who died io 1933, imprisoned under house arrest in the city of Buenos Aires (“The South”, p. 176). It also did not prevent him from taking political stands, as he did against Argentine dictatior Juan Domingo Perón, or participating in events of his times. However, the date of retrieval is often important. He imagines the journey South in order to regain a measure of honor, self-respect, and transcendence in his last moments of consciousness.). As the shopkeeper protests that Dahlmann is unarmed, the old gaucho suddenly throws the sick man a dagger. Hernández wrote sympathetically of the plight of the gaucho civilization, doomed as it was by the political machinations, economic greed, and overt racism of Argentina’s elite classes in the nineteenth century. 224-25). A Magical Realism Story:"The South" Symbols of "The South" By Jorge Luis Borges The Theme Of "The South" 1. BORN: 1870, Akyab, Burma Jorge Luis Borges: A Literary Biography. As he whisks through the landscape (complete with horsemen, lakes, pastures, and glowing clouds) made dreamlike and ideal by his nostalgia, he finds that he recognizes even the vegetation, although he could not name the things he sees—“his direct knowledge of the country was considerably inferior to his nostalgic, literary knowledge” (“The South,” p. 177). ", With this in mind, one may well reinterpret the story such that everything after Dahlmann's darkest moments in the hospital is a narration of his idealized death—the one Juan Dahlmann fabricates and enacts in his feverish mind while on the verge of a pathetic demise in the hospital he has never really left. Horacio…, Saki Find the best construction attorney serving Colorado Springs. All this must be viewed in the context of the nationalist sentiments that were on the rise in Argentina at the time. Such festering resentment helps explain the tension between the rough-looking rural laborers and Dahlmann in the story. Tampa, FL. Foreigners lived under the threat of deportation; anti-government activists were in danger of arrest, torture, and even execution. The protagonist Juan Dahlmann owns a ranch in the South that he has but rarely visited; in this regard, he resembles 62 percent of the actual landlords in the South at the time (Rock, p. 237). In February 1939, while intently reading The Arabian Nights, Dahlmann runs into the corner of a casement window in his building; the wound becomes infected and a fever sets in. Magical Realist Fiction: An Anthology. Upon resting there, he finds that his wounds magically heal - but he is not surprised to see this. The South (Borges story) Summary & Study Guide This Study Guide consists of approximately 18 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of The South. This turn of events did not go unnoticed by the city’s other intellectuals, and Borges became “the symbol of Argentina’s resistance to totalitarianism” (Rodriguez Monegal, p. 393). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990. Discharged from the hospital, Juan Dahlmann sets off to his estate in the South to convalesce. Characteristics of this nationalism were its championship of the Church (clericalism) and of all things Argentine (nativism), as well as policies of anti-Semitism, an-tianarchism, and fierce anticommunism. Dahlmann reflects amusingly on the creature's seemingly inhabiting an eternal present dissociated from human time. Dahlmann firmly grips the knife, which he may have no idea how to manage, and steps out into the plains. In fact, Argentine workers saw in Perón a leader who “stood for something every Argentine politician since 1930 manifestly failed to offer: the charismatic possibility of achieving a new order without bloodshed or corruption” (Woodall, p. 133). Horacio Quiroga (1878-1937) was a Uruguayan writer. Evita had died of cancer in 1952, and without her charisma the dictator lost substantial influence. “Jorge Luis Borges.” In Latin American Writers. “To travel with this book, which was so much a part of the history of his ill-fortune, was a … Heated opposition rose up against the concessions granted to the beef industry in the Roca-Runciman treaty; some opponents protested that Britain was being offered outrageously advantageous terms, while others claimed that this settlement was merely a way of protecting the wealthy ranchers who backed Justo’s government (Rock, p. 227). Before coming to Pittsburgh, the Borges Center was based at the University of Iowa, where Daniel Balderston taught for nine years. However, he feels that his death in a knife fight is honorable, that it is the one he would have chosen when he was sick in the hospital, and he decides to have a go. The Antebellum South In 1951 he expropriated the leading newspaper, La Prensa, which had long been critical of his regime, and turned it into a state mouthpiece. The gauchos, a largely mestizo population, traditionally roamed the pampas, living off free-range cattle, which they would avail themselves of as needed. Following the tradition of its founders (Ivan Almeida and Cristina Parodi), the Borges Center maintained an intense academic and cultural work. 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